Rsync, Mac OS, Debian, and Modified Times. Oh My.While writing a backup script to back up my data from Mac OS to a Raspberry Pi, I ran into an issue with relative modification times of the files being transferred:
rsyncthought every file on the Mac side was always more recently updated than on the Debian side.
I was using the
-a flag for archive mode, which includes along with a few other things goes with rsync's default behavior of comparing file size and last modification time. The two OS's weren't agreeing on the times, however, so each file was copied over every time I ran the backup command.
To avoid this, I started using the
-c flag, which compares the checksum of each file on both systems. This resulted in what I wanted: if I changed only one file, then only one file was sent to the backup and it is now very fast. So if you're having this problem, use the
-c flag for faster backups. Here's my
rsync command and flags in case you're curious:
rsync -rc --progress --delete --exclude-from 'backup_exclude.txt' \ /home/myuser/ /media/treddell/backup_folder/
Installing a Printer in a Windows 7 Virtual Machine with an Ubuntu Host
I recently needed to print a document using a website that wanted to run Java applet on a Windows machine. After a bit of work I had a Windows 7 virtual machine guest printing to a printer connected to the Ubuntu host machine. I'll go through the steps to do this here in case I need to do it again or someone else is stuck trying to accomplish the same thing.
Install VirtualBox from Oracle
In the past I was fine using the VirtualBox version from Ubuntu's repository. This works great if all you need is encapsulated in the VM you're working with. However, once you want to interface the VM more closely with the host OS, you can run into trouble. Apparently there is some functionality missing when it comes to passing USB devices through to the guest machine using the open-source VirtualBox version. So make sure you go to Oracle's VirtualBox download page and get the Oracle version: Download VirtualBox.
Install Guest Additions
Next install guest additions. After your guest OS (Windows 7) is installed, boot it up and click on the "Install Guest Additions" option in the "Devices" menu of the VirtualBox window running the OS.
Install the Extension Pack
Now you need to install the "Oracle VM VirtualBox Extension Pack", also found on the Oracle VirtualBox download page. After downloading it, simply double click on it in your file manager. At this point I got an error saying
"The installer failed with exit code 127: Error creating textual authentication agent: Error opening current controlling terminal for the process (`/dev/tty'): No such device or address."
It seems that VirtualBox needs different permissions to install the extension pack, so I closed VirtualBox, opened my file manager as root (
sudo thunar or
sudo nautilus) and double-clicked it again.
Add user to vboxusers
Add your user to the vboxusers group that VirtualBox should have created upon installation. Do this with the following command:
sudo usermod -aG vboxusers yourusername
Select the printer as a USB device
At this point I recommend shutting down the Windows 7 guest and rebooting your Ubuntu host, just to as superstitious way to make everything "kosher". Now, after booting the VM again, you should be able to select your printer in the Devices>USB Devices menu. Once you select it, there will be check mark beside it and Windows 7 should see it and start installing drivers for the printer.
After that has completed, you should be able to print using your printer as if the VM were physically connected to it. Good luck, and let me know of any issues you encounter in the comments below.
Email hardening: Subject-only AccessIt seems like every week we find out about credentials being leaked by some company. Even though that seems like the most pressing threat to the security of our online accounts, I've been thinking about a different one: the signed-in email account. How many devices is your email account currently signed in on? Altough they might have their own passwords when they are locked or suspended, most of us leave our email accounts wide open on all of our devices. Our smartphones, our tablets, our laptops, our work devices -- they all would give our entire email account to anyone that happens to catch them unlocked. And some of us don't even lock our devices when we're away from them (you should start if you don't).
Thinking about this, and realizing that I don't need email-sending abilities at a moment's notice I decided to set up a "subject-only" email portal. The problem is that if someone had access to your email then they could reset a myriad of passwords and have access to many of your accounts. But if they could only read the subject (or sender) of your newest emails then they couldn't accomplish much. I already have my Raspberry Pi backing up my email (with fail2ban running), so I set up a quick output of my newest email when it checks my account. I then rsync this file to my VPS (I would host it on the Pi, but my ISP has control issues and messes with server ports). This means I can visit a page on a website I own and see my newest email. But an a malicious person couldn't do much with this information.
I also set up basic authentication for this page so it's not easily seen by others. This may be little less convenient, because I have limited my email-sending ability to a single device that stays in my home and password protected. But I don't send a lot of emails so that doesn't bother me. Here's my script:
#! /bin/bash date > mail.txt; grep "Subject: " mail.mbox | \ grep -v "From: " | \ sed s/"Subject: "/---\ /g | \ sed s/"=?utf-8?q?"//g | \ sed s/"?="//g | \ sed s/"=?iso-8859-1?q?"//g | \ tail -n 20 >> mail.txt; scp -P myaltport mail.txt mydomain.com:~/path_to/webroot/
This gives me a list of my 20 most recent email subject lines (with useless text cleaned out) delimited by a new line and "--- ". Now I can access the information I need from any of my devices, but a malicious person can't use my account from those devices.
This might seem far-fetched to some, but there's no reason to make access to an important email account easy for other people. You don't leave your money in a bucket on your porch "because it's convenient", do you?
Taking Webcam Photos Via the Command LineHere's an easy way to use your default webcam to take a photo with a single command from a terminal:
mplayer -vo png -frames 1 tv://
I wanted a quick and easy way to take a photo with my laptop's webcam and upload it to my server on a regular basis when I'm away from my machine. Side note: this wasn't to take photos of unknowing human victims, but to check in on my dogs :).
I realized that the first few frames weren't great due to the camera turning on, so I had it take 5 frames:
mplayer -vo png -frames 5 tv://
I then wanted to upload them to my server to be accessible (behind nginx's basic authentication so only those with the credentials can see them):
mplayer -vo png -frames 5 tv://; \ scp 00000005.png magnatecha.com:~/webroot/mydomain.com/cam/pic.png;
I also wanted to take the webcam photo on an interval:
while true; do \ mplayer -vo png -frames 5 tv://; \ scp 00000005.png magnatecha.com:~/webroot/mydomain.com/cam/pic.png; \ sleep 120; \ done;
That creates an infinite loop that takes 5 frames of photos, uploads the fifth one to my server, waits 120 seconds and then does it all again. This allows me to see a photo of whatever my laptop is pointed at that is at most 2 minutes old.
Screenshot Sharing Script for Mac OS
I recently wanted to move away from commercial screenshot sharing tools (I was using Jing), so I decided to create a script that takes screenshots, allows you to annotate them, then uploads them to a free webhost. The free host I use is 000webhost.com and I use ftp to upload the image. Here's the script:
#! /bin/bash d=`date +%Y%m%d%I%M%S` host="http://tr99.host56.com/" password="*******" screencapture -i $d".png"; open $d".png" #edit? read go; echo "put "$d.png | ftp ftp://a8533349:$firstname.lastname@example.org:21/public_html/ \ && echo $host"$d.png" | pbcopy mv $d.png ~/pics/
That will take an interactive screenshot, open it in Preview so that you can edit and save it, then continue and upload it to your ftp host when you press any key in the terminal. I have my terminal (iTerm2) set to hide with a keyboard combo (ctrl+space) so that I can tell it to get out of the way if I'm taking a screenshot of something else. I assigned the script to a bash alias, so all I have to to do is open a terminal and type my alias. It also copies the url to the screenshot to your clipboard using pbcopy so that you can just paste it when you want to share it.